Muhongo is Minister of Energy and Minerals, Tanzania. A chartered geologist (full professor of geology at the Univ. of Dar Es Salaam, hon. prof. of Geology, Univ. of Pretoria, South Africa, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of African Earth Sciences), he was president, Geological Soc. of Africa (1995-01); found. regional director (2005-10), ICSU Reg. Office for Africa, Pretoria; chair, UNESCO-IUGS-IGCP Scientific Board of Intl. Geoscience Programme (2004-08); and chair (2007-10), Science Programme Committee (SPC), Intl. Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). He is a member of the OECD Global Science Forum and the Exec. Board of the African Inter-Parliamentary Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation (AIPF-STI). He is hon. fellow, Geological Society of London; hon. research fellow, Chin. Acad. of Geol. Sciences, and a fellow of 8 professional societies.