Mugyenyi is director, Joint Clinical Research Centre, AIDS Research Centre of Excellence, and chancellor, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda. After medical studies in Uganda, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, he worked in the UK and Middle East. He returned to Uganda in 1989 and has held various positions including: Chair, National Biological Sciences Committee; principal investigator, consultant and member of scientific working groups on HIV/AIDS in countries including Kenya, Haiti and USA. His honours include two DSc (h.c.) degrees; Hero of Medicine Award; Lifetime Achievement Award (Gold Medal); and Uganda Parliamentary honour (2004). He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and Edinburgh, Uganda Academy of Sciences, and director and member of several institutions and organisations.